A Helleva lot of Velella

Velella velella Vanguard
One of the early arriving Velella velella last week on Wickaninnish Beach in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve.

It’s like some ill-conceived, poorly planned invasion on the shores of the west coast of Vancouver Island. In the last week, small blue jellyfish-like creatures have been landing on the beaches of Pacific Rim National Park Reserve in the millions—large swaths of them line the strand line at Wickaninnish Beach. More continue to come in daily.

Velella velella at Wickaninnish Beach
Main landing this week on Wickaninnish Beach, numbers now in the millions.

These fascinating creatures are Velella velella, a member of the phylum Cnidarian (which also includes more familiar creatures like jellyfish and sea anemones). They go by the common name of “By the Wind Sailor” which references both their upright transparent sail and the fact that they go where the wind takes them (in this case onto our shores). The genus and species name Velella refers to “vellum” or sail.

There are two schools of thought on their nature. The most widely accepted idea is that the Velella are a colony of very specialized hydroids joined together under the floating raft of the sail. Specialized polyps called dactylozooids capture food and protect the organism, gastrozooids do the job of ingesting food, and gonozooids serve a reproductive role.

More recent research suggests that the animal is not in fact a colony, but a highly specialized individual polyp. Velella velella have recently been reclassified from Siphonophora (which includes colonial hydroids like the Portuguese Man-of-War) to Anthomedusae (athecate hydroids). In essence, the animal is more or less like an upside-down sea anemone attached to a float.

Velella velella
The underside of a Velella velella showing the blue tentacles and brownish coloured center.

Like other members of Cnidarian, the Velella velella also has stinging nematocysts. You may experience a slight tingling handling the blue part of the animal and it is a good idea to avoid touching your mouth or eyes after touching it. One surfer I talked to this week got one in his mouth and his lips were numb for several hours. Picking it up by the transparent sail to get a closer look is fine.

Water-line Isopods
When the Velella come in, the feast is served. Water-line isopods gorge themselves on the bounty!

Velella velella typically spend most of their lives out on the open ocean of the Pacific floating where the wind takes them. They feed opportunistically on small prey that are immediately below the surface of the water. In turn they are eaten by specialized species of nudibranchs, bubble rafting snails, and the ocean sunfish (mola-mola). Once on shore, they are preyed upon by beach scavengers like the water-line isopod. The delicate blue jelly fringe is worn off quickly in the abrasive sand.

The shear number of Velella on the beaches is astounding, in 5 seasons out at Pacific Rim National Park Reserve I’ve never seen anything like it. This evening there were still plenty of them in long lines on the beach, but nothing like the large numbers of earlier in the week. The best time to view and photograph the Velella is on a dropping tide. The high tide brings in fresh Velella and pushes the previous (now decaying) wave further up the beach. The receding water continues to bring in Velella but deposits them on relatively clean beach. Make sure to see them soon, they won’t last long although their smell may linger!

Velella velella
Sunset on Wickaninnish Beach with the Velella velella.

Additional Reading:


  1. I’ve seen similar looking jellyfish in Maui. At the time, I thought it was a Portuguese Man O War. Now I know it’s more likely I saw something else, like Valella valella.

  2. Beautiful photos! I’ve added a link to this article on the Velella page of the Central Coast species ID website I develop for work at UVic – centralcoastbiodiversity.weebly.com/sail-jellyfish-bull-velella-velella.html

  3. Awesome – thanks Kelly! It was truly a stunning summer for Velella velella, they were drifting in for the entire month of August.

  4. I’ve heard recent (spring 2015) reports of landings in Washington/Oregon – strange changes going on in the oceans.

  5. As far as I can tell the Velella washing up last year were particularly headline-worthy because of how late in the year they appeared – late spring/early summer is more normal. It also sounds like they are linked with El Niño events.

    They were spotted by members of my lab on Calvert Island north of Port Hardy last weekend.

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